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写真 | 2019年 08月 14日 20:25 JST

Artifacts of slavery

A replica made as a copy of a slave's neck brace or collar that is held as part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. A collar was put on an enslaved person's neck as a punishment, and was designed to prevent them resting as well as making escape difficult. August 2019 marks 400 years since the slave trade to North America began.     REUTERS/Russell Boyce

A replica made as a copy of a slave's neck brace or collar that is held as part of the collection in the Wilbemore

A replica made as a copy of a slave's neck brace or collar that is held as part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. A collar was put on an enslaved person's neck as a punishment, and was designed to prevent them resting as well as making escape difficult. August 2019 marks 400 years since the slave trade to North America began. REUTERS/Russell Boyce
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A section of a print of the Brookes Slave Ship diagram dated 1791 forms part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull, Britain. According to the museum the print is arguably one of the most recognizable images from the campaign to abolish the Transatlantic Slave Trade in Britain. The publication of this image provided the public with a clear visual representation of conditions on board slave ships for the first time. August 2019 marks 400 years since the slave trade to North America began.  REUTERS/Russell Boyce

A section of a print of the Brookes Slave Ship diagram dated 1791 forms part of the collection in the Wilberfomore

A section of a print of the Brookes Slave Ship diagram dated 1791 forms part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull, Britain. According to the museum the print is arguably one of the most recognizable images from the campaign to abolish the Transatlantic Slave Trade in Britain. The publication of this image provided the public with a clear visual representation of conditions on board slave ships for the first time. August 2019 marks 400 years since the slave trade to North America began. REUTERS/Russell Boyce
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An 1895 replica of a silver branding iron, similar to those used to brand enslaved people with the mark of a trading company or plantation, at the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. When enslaved people were purchased, they would be branded with a red hot iron on their chest or shoulder. REUTERS/Russell Boyce

An 1895 replica of a silver branding iron, similar to those used to brand enslaved people with the mark of a tmore

An 1895 replica of a silver branding iron, similar to those used to brand enslaved people with the mark of a trading company or plantation, at the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. When enslaved people were purchased, they would be branded with a red hot iron on their chest or shoulder. REUTERS/Russell Boyce
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A double leg shackle, dated from the 18th century, is displayed as part of the collection at the Mobee Royal Family Slave Relics Museum, in Badagry, Nigeria. This shackle was used to bind together the legs of two slaves when they were being moved from one location to another or when two slaves were made to work together in the field, the goal being to slow their movement. August 2019 marks 400 years since the slave trade to North America began.     REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

A double leg shackle, dated from the 18th century, is displayed as part of the collection at the Mobee Royal Fmore

A double leg shackle, dated from the 18th century, is displayed as part of the collection at the Mobee Royal Family Slave Relics Museum, in Badagry, Nigeria. This shackle was used to bind together the legs of two slaves when they were being moved from one location to another or when two slaves were made to work together in the field, the goal being to slow their movement. August 2019 marks 400 years since the slave trade to North America began. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde
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A punishment record for the Friendship Plantation, dated 1st July to 31st December 1827, part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. The punishment of slaves was meticulously recorded with separate columns listed with details of date, name of slave, nature of offence (such a refusing to work and running away), time and place of punishment, by whose authority, by whom inflicted, witnesses, nature and extent of punishment if female and extent of punishment if male.    REUTERS/Russell Boyce

A punishment record for the Friendship Plantation, dated 1st July to 31st December 1827, part of the collectiomore

A punishment record for the Friendship Plantation, dated 1st July to 31st December 1827, part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. The punishment of slaves was meticulously recorded with separate columns listed with details of date, name of slave, nature of offence (such a refusing to work and running away), time and place of punishment, by whose authority, by whom inflicted, witnesses, nature and extent of punishment if female and extent of punishment if male. REUTERS/Russell Boyce
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A seal from the Registrar of Slaves and Deeds is seen on display at the Slave Lodge Museum in Cape Town, South Africa. The wax impression dates from between 1816-1838.  
 REUTERS/Mike Hutchings

A seal from the Registrar of Slaves and Deeds is seen on display at the Slave Lodge Museum in Cape Town, Southmore

A seal from the Registrar of Slaves and Deeds is seen on display at the Slave Lodge Museum in Cape Town, South Africa. The wax impression dates from between 1816-1838. REUTERS/Mike Hutchings
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A whip thought to be made of hippopotamus hide and allegedly used on a plantation in the British Caribbean in the nineteenth century, part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. Slaves were reported to often get whipped on plantations with a variety of whips.  REUTERS/Russell Boyce

A whip thought to be made of hippopotamus hide and allegedly used on a plantation in the British Caribbean in more

A whip thought to be made of hippopotamus hide and allegedly used on a plantation in the British Caribbean in the nineteenth century, part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. Slaves were reported to often get whipped on plantations with a variety of whips. REUTERS/Russell Boyce
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A print of a notice saying "Negroes for sale" and informing of eight slaves belonging to Jacob August to be sold by public autions in Warrenton, North Carolina, on October 28, 1859 by Autioneer PJ Turnbull. The print is displayed at Nigeria's Badagry Heritage Museum. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

A print of a notice saying "Negroes for sale" and informing of eight slaves belonging to Jacob August to be somore

A print of a notice saying "Negroes for sale" and informing of eight slaves belonging to Jacob August to be sold by public autions in Warrenton, North Carolina, on October 28, 1859 by Autioneer PJ Turnbull. The print is displayed at Nigeria's Badagry Heritage Museum. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde
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A pointed branding tool on the end of a chain that dates from the 18th century and was captured from a slave ship by slave merchant Sumbu Mobee, part of the original collection at the Mobee Royal Family Slave Relics Museum in Badagry, Nigeria. According to the museum this tool was heated in fire and then used to write the names of the slave merchant on the skin of the slaves. It was also used to pierce the lips of slaves, to prevent slaves who were working in the fields from eating.  REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

A pointed branding tool on the end of a chain that dates from the 18th century and was captured from a slave smore

A pointed branding tool on the end of a chain that dates from the 18th century and was captured from a slave ship by slave merchant Sumbu Mobee, part of the original collection at the Mobee Royal Family Slave Relics Museum in Badagry, Nigeria. According to the museum this tool was heated in fire and then used to write the names of the slave merchant on the skin of the slaves. It was also used to pierce the lips of slaves, to prevent slaves who were working in the fields from eating. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde
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Illustrations from a document published in 1794 titled 'Remarks on the Methods of Procuring slaves with a short account of their Treatment in the West-Indies' that is held as part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. REUTERS/Russell Boyce

Illustrations from a document published in 1794 titled 'Remarks on the Methods of Procuring slaves with a shormore

Illustrations from a document published in 1794 titled 'Remarks on the Methods of Procuring slaves with a short account of their Treatment in the West-Indies' that is held as part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. REUTERS/Russell Boyce
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A tool dated from the 18th century that, according to the museum, was used to suspend a slave who was considered stubborn from a tree, part of the original collection at the Mobee Royal Family Slave Relics Museum in Badagry, Nigeria. The ring at the end of the tool was forced over the already broken wrist of a punished slave. The tool was then attached to a tree branch holding the entire body weight of the slave off the ground.  REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

A tool dated from the 18th century that, according to the museum, was used to suspend a slave who was considermore

A tool dated from the 18th century that, according to the museum, was used to suspend a slave who was considered stubborn from a tree, part of the original collection at the Mobee Royal Family Slave Relics Museum in Badagry, Nigeria. The ring at the end of the tool was forced over the already broken wrist of a punished slave. The tool was then attached to a tree branch holding the entire body weight of the slave off the ground. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde
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Two cannons that date from the 18th century are displayed as part of the original collection at the Mobee Royal Family Slave Relics Museum Badagry, Nigeria. According to the museum each cannon of this size could be exchanged for up to 100 slaves.   REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

Two cannons that date from the 18th century are displayed as part of the original collection at the Mobee Royamore

Two cannons that date from the 18th century are displayed as part of the original collection at the Mobee Royal Family Slave Relics Museum Badagry, Nigeria. According to the museum each cannon of this size could be exchanged for up to 100 slaves. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde
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A section of a print of the Brookes Slave Ship diagram dated 1791 that shows women on board, part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull.   REUTERS/Russell Boyce

A section of a print of the Brookes Slave Ship diagram dated 1791 that shows women on board, part of the collemore

A section of a print of the Brookes Slave Ship diagram dated 1791 that shows women on board, part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. REUTERS/Russell Boyce
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Slave shackles dated from the period of slavery are displayed as part of the collection at the Museum of Civilizations of Ivory Coast in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. The shackles were used to restrain the feet of the slaves to keep them immobile during their transport in boats or when held in cells.   REUTERS/Luc Gnago

Slave shackles dated from the period of slavery are displayed as part of the collection at the Museum of Civilmore

Slave shackles dated from the period of slavery are displayed as part of the collection at the Museum of Civilizations of Ivory Coast in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. The shackles were used to restrain the feet of the slaves to keep them immobile during their transport in boats or when held in cells. REUTERS/Luc Gnago
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Muskets dated between the 16th and 18th century, part of the collection at the Museum of Civilizations of Ivory Coast in Abidjan. Muskets were used by slavers during the search and transport of slaves and to protect slavers from raids against other slavers trying to steal their captives. REUTERS/Luc Gnago

Muskets dated between the 16th and 18th century, part of the collection at the Museum of Civilizations of Ivormore

Muskets dated between the 16th and 18th century, part of the collection at the Museum of Civilizations of Ivory Coast in Abidjan. Muskets were used by slavers during the search and transport of slaves and to protect slavers from raids against other slavers trying to steal their captives. REUTERS/Luc Gnago
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A copy of a poster (date unconfirmed) advertising the sale of slaves by auctioneer Beard, on display at the Badagry Heritage Museum in Nigeria. The poster lists slaves of various ages, with different characters and skills and also includes the terms of sale.  REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

A copy of a poster (date unconfirmed) advertising the sale of slaves by auctioneer Beard, on display at the Bamore

A copy of a poster (date unconfirmed) advertising the sale of slaves by auctioneer Beard, on display at the Badagry Heritage Museum in Nigeria. The poster lists slaves of various ages, with different characters and skills and also includes the terms of sale. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde
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A ritual mortar of the Senoufo ethnic group, part of the collection at the Museum of Civilizations of Ivory Coast in Abidjan. The undated mortar is made of sacred wood and decorated with carved images of rifles, a man riding a horse and slaves being transported and was used to pound cereals for initiation ceremonies. REUTERS/Luc Gnago

A ritual mortar of the Senoufo ethnic group, part of the collection at the Museum of Civilizations of Ivory Comore

A ritual mortar of the Senoufo ethnic group, part of the collection at the Museum of Civilizations of Ivory Coast in Abidjan. The undated mortar is made of sacred wood and decorated with carved images of rifles, a man riding a horse and slaves being transported and was used to pound cereals for initiation ceremonies. REUTERS/Luc Gnago
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A letter of apology by the descendants of the Abass family is displayed next to a slave chain, part of the collection at the Seriki Abass museum in Nigeria. The sign reads "We, the descendants of Seriki Williams Abass, regret and are very sorry for the role and involvement of Seriki Ifaremi Williams Abass in the transatlantic slave trade in West Africa, either by force or by choice. We are very sorry. Signed, the Family".   REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

A letter of apology by the descendants of the Abass family is displayed next to a slave chain, part of the colmore

A letter of apology by the descendants of the Abass family is displayed next to a slave chain, part of the collection at the Seriki Abass museum in Nigeria. The sign reads "We, the descendants of Seriki Williams Abass, regret and are very sorry for the role and involvement of Seriki Ifaremi Williams Abass in the transatlantic slave trade in West Africa, either by force or by choice. We are very sorry. Signed, the Family". REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde
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A slave certificate from the Registrar of Slaves and Deeds on display at the Slave Lodge Museum in Cape Town, South Africa. After 1808 when the importation of slaves was no longer allowed, slave sales were more tightly controlled and certificates such as this were issued as a means of record-keeping.   REUTERS/Mike Hutchings

A slave certificate from the Registrar of Slaves and Deeds on display at the Slave Lodge Museum in Cape Town, more

A slave certificate from the Registrar of Slaves and Deeds on display at the Slave Lodge Museum in Cape Town, South Africa. After 1808 when the importation of slaves was no longer allowed, slave sales were more tightly controlled and certificates such as this were issued as a means of record-keeping. REUTERS/Mike Hutchings
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A slave bell, that dates from 1775, on display at the Slave Lodge Museum in Cape Town, South Africa. It has its origins from the Estate of Burgher Lieutenant Michiel van Breda in 'Oranje Zigt' now know as Orangjezicht in Cape Town and according to the museum was used to summon slaves for work and to mark the end of the day. Michiel van Breda had nineteen male slaves, eleven of whom were from Bengal and described as 'gardeners'.  REUTERS/Mike Hutchings

A slave bell, that dates from 1775, on display at the Slave Lodge Museum in Cape Town, South Africa. It has itmore

A slave bell, that dates from 1775, on display at the Slave Lodge Museum in Cape Town, South Africa. It has its origins from the Estate of Burgher Lieutenant Michiel van Breda in 'Oranje Zigt' now know as Orangjezicht in Cape Town and according to the museum was used to summon slaves for work and to mark the end of the day. Michiel van Breda had nineteen male slaves, eleven of whom were from Bengal and described as 'gardeners'. REUTERS/Mike Hutchings
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A child slave hand restraint chain displayed at the Seriki Abass museum in Badagry, Nigeria. According to the museum this chain was used to handcuff child slaves when they were moved from one place to another.   REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

A child slave hand restraint chain displayed at the Seriki Abass museum in Badagry, Nigeria. According to the more

A child slave hand restraint chain displayed at the Seriki Abass museum in Badagry, Nigeria. According to the museum this chain was used to handcuff child slaves when they were moved from one place to another. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde
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An original slave chain that dates from the 18th century that was captured from a slave ship, on display at the Mobee Royal Family Slave Relics Museum in Badagry, Nigeria. This chain, which weighs about 80 Kg, was used to shackle about 20 slaves to both restrain them and group them together when working in the fields.  REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

An original slave chain that dates from the 18th century that was captured from a slave ship, on display at thmore

An original slave chain that dates from the 18th century that was captured from a slave ship, on display at the Mobee Royal Family Slave Relics Museum in Badagry, Nigeria. This chain, which weighs about 80 Kg, was used to shackle about 20 slaves to both restrain them and group them together when working in the fields. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde
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An undated set of slave hand restraints, part of the collection at the Seriki Abass museum in Badagry, Nigeria. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

An undated set of slave hand restraints, part of the collection at the Seriki Abass museum in Badagry, Nigeriamore

An undated set of slave hand restraints, part of the collection at the Seriki Abass museum in Badagry, Nigeria. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde
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The painting entitled 'The Watt' by artist William Jackson, at the International Slavery Museum in Liverpool, Britain. 'Watt' ship was built for the firm Watt and Walker in 1797 and made regular voyages to Jamaica bringing back commodities such as sugar and rum.  REUTERS/Phil Noble

The painting entitled 'The Watt' by artist William Jackson, at the International Slavery Museum in Liverpool, more

The painting entitled 'The Watt' by artist William Jackson, at the International Slavery Museum in Liverpool, Britain. 'Watt' ship was built for the firm Watt and Walker in 1797 and made regular voyages to Jamaica bringing back commodities such as sugar and rum. REUTERS/Phil Noble
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A set of slave hand restraints displayed as part of the collection at the Seriki Abass museum in Badagry, Nigeria. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

A set of slave hand restraints displayed as part of the collection at the Seriki Abass museum in Badagry, Nigemore

A set of slave hand restraints displayed as part of the collection at the Seriki Abass museum in Badagry, Nigeria. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde
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An etching titled 'Sale of Estates, Pictures and Slaves in the Rotunda, New Orleans', part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. The etching depicts a slave auction thought to have taken place under the dome of either the St Louis Hotel or the St Charles Hotel. 
  REUTERS/Russell Boyce

An etching titled 'Sale of Estates, Pictures and Slaves in the Rotunda, New Orleans', part of the collection imore

An etching titled 'Sale of Estates, Pictures and Slaves in the Rotunda, New Orleans', part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. The etching depicts a slave auction thought to have taken place under the dome of either the St Louis Hotel or the St Charles Hotel. REUTERS/Russell Boyce
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Slave shackles dated from the period of slavery are displayed as part of the collection at the Museum of Civilizations of Ivory Coast in Abidjan. The shackles were used to restrain the feet of the slaves to keep them immobile during their transport in boats or when held in cells.  REUTERS/Luc Gnago

Slave shackles dated from the period of slavery are displayed as part of the collection at the Museum of Civilmore

Slave shackles dated from the period of slavery are displayed as part of the collection at the Museum of Civilizations of Ivory Coast in Abidjan. The shackles were used to restrain the feet of the slaves to keep them immobile during their transport in boats or when held in cells. REUTERS/Luc Gnago
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Illustrations from a document published in 1794 titled 'Remarks on the Methods of Procuring slaves with a short account of their Treatment in the West-Indies', part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. REUTERS/Russell Boyce

Illustrations from a document published in 1794 titled 'Remarks on the Methods of Procuring slaves with a shormore

Illustrations from a document published in 1794 titled 'Remarks on the Methods of Procuring slaves with a short account of their Treatment in the West-Indies', part of the collection in the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. REUTERS/Russell Boyce
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A collection of staffs of office of slave merchant Sumbu Mobee that date from the 18th century, part of the original collection at the Mobee Royal Family Slave Relics Museum in Badagry, Nigeria. According to the museum these items were held by one of the servants of chief Mobee, who walked ahead of him to announce his presence by shaking the item to make a noise. Upon sighting the chief, male slaves had to prostrate themselves while female slaves would knee to show respect to the slave merchant. 
  REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

A collection of staffs of office of slave merchant Sumbu Mobee that date from the 18th century, part of the ormore

A collection of staffs of office of slave merchant Sumbu Mobee that date from the 18th century, part of the original collection at the Mobee Royal Family Slave Relics Museum in Badagry, Nigeria. According to the museum these items were held by one of the servants of chief Mobee, who walked ahead of him to announce his presence by shaking the item to make a noise. Upon sighting the chief, male slaves had to prostrate themselves while female slaves would knee to show respect to the slave merchant. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde
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The unattributed oil painting titled 'Am I not a Man and a Brother' that was used in the 18th century as a symbol during the fight to abolish slavery, at the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. The painting is based on a 1787 anti-slavery design produced by British potter Josiah Wedgwood. The widely available image was reproduced on a range of items, including plates, bowls, hat pins and snuff boxes. REUTERS/Russell Boyce

The unattributed oil painting titled 'Am I not a Man and a Brother' that was used in the 18th century as a symmore

The unattributed oil painting titled 'Am I not a Man and a Brother' that was used in the 18th century as a symbol during the fight to abolish slavery, at the Wilberforce House Museum in Hull. The painting is based on a 1787 anti-slavery design produced by British potter Josiah Wedgwood. The widely available image was reproduced on a range of items, including plates, bowls, hat pins and snuff boxes. REUTERS/Russell Boyce
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