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写真 | 2018年 08月 16日 04:00 JST

Debating Cuba's proposed new constitution

Cubans attend a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. Cuba has begun a public debate on issues ranging from one-party rule and socialism to inequality, gay rights, private property and restructuring of the country's government as it moves to replace a Cold War-era constitution. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo

Cubans attend a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2more

Cubans attend a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. Cuba has begun a public debate on issues ranging from one-party rule and socialism to inequality, gay rights, private property and restructuring of the country's government as it moves to replace a Cold War-era constitution. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo
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Cubans read the draft proposal of changes to the constitution during the beginning of a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. A Communist Party-proposed overhaul of the island's 1976 Magna Carta will be discussed in 35,000 workplaces and community meetings into November after its recent approval by the Parliament. Once the debate is wrapped up, the legislature will approve a new draft and submit it to a nationwide vote early next year.

 REUTERS/Tomas Bravo

Cubans read the draft proposal of changes to the constitution during the beginning of a public political discumore

Cubans read the draft proposal of changes to the constitution during the beginning of a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. A Communist Party-proposed overhaul of the island's 1976 Magna Carta will be discussed in 35,000 workplaces and community meetings into November after its recent approval by the Parliament. Once the debate is wrapped up, the legislature will approve a new draft and submit it to a nationwide vote early next year. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo
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Cubans read the draft proposal of changes to the constitution during the beginning of a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. The new version keeps the Communist Party as the only legal party and its role as the guide of the nation, stating this is irrevocable. Yet, it eliminates a reference in the current constitution to reaching a utopian communism and another banning the use of private property to exploit the labor of others. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo

Cubans read the draft proposal of changes to the constitution during the beginning of a public political discumore

Cubans read the draft proposal of changes to the constitution during the beginning of a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. The new version keeps the Communist Party as the only legal party and its role as the guide of the nation, stating this is irrevocable. Yet, it eliminates a reference in the current constitution to reaching a utopian communism and another banning the use of private property to exploit the labor of others. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo
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Cubans attend a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. The proposed version of the constitution in part codifies changes in Cuban society that have occurred since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, long the country's benefactor, and in part modifies how the nation will function in the future. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo

Cubans attend a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2more

Cubans attend a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. The proposed version of the constitution in part codifies changes in Cuban society that have occurred since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, long the country's benefactor, and in part modifies how the nation will function in the future. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo
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Cubans attend a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. An appointed prime minister has been added at the national level to supervise the day-to-day operations of the government, in particular the state-owned economy. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo

Cubans attend a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2more

Cubans attend a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. An appointed prime minister has been added at the national level to supervise the day-to-day operations of the government, in particular the state-owned economy. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo
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Cuban General Samuel Rodiles Planas speaks during a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. The new version doubles down on the state's dominance over the means of production and land and the role of centralized planning. This too is deemed irrevocable. Still, for the first time there it recognizes the market as a fact of economic life, though it can be countermanded at will by the government. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo

Cuban General Samuel Rodiles Planas speaks during a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constmore

Cuban General Samuel Rodiles Planas speaks during a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. The new version doubles down on the state's dominance over the means of production and land and the role of centralized planning. This too is deemed irrevocable. Still, for the first time there it recognizes the market as a fact of economic life, though it can be countermanded at will by the government. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo
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A Cuban nurse holds the draft proposal of changes to the constitution during the beginning of a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution at the Nguyen Van Troi Polyclinic in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. Provincial assemblies modeled after the national assembly are eliminated in the new version and replaced by an appointed governor and deputy governor. The governor will preside over a provincial council made up of municipal leaders. Terms of ward delegates to municipal assemblies are doubled to five years. The position of mayor has been added to that of president of the municipal assembly. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo

A Cuban nurse holds the draft proposal of changes to the constitution during the beginning of a public politicmore

A Cuban nurse holds the draft proposal of changes to the constitution during the beginning of a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution at the Nguyen Van Troi Polyclinic in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. Provincial assemblies modeled after the national assembly are eliminated in the new version and replaced by an appointed governor and deputy governor. The governor will preside over a provincial council made up of municipal leaders. Terms of ward delegates to municipal assemblies are doubled to five years. The position of mayor has been added to that of president of the municipal assembly. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo
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A man is silhouetted near a picture of late Cuban President Fidel Castro before the beginning of the public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution at the Nguyen Van Troi Polyclinic in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. Private businesses and non-farm cooperatives are included for the first time in the new version as legitimate economic activity, and the role of joint ventures and other forms of foreign investment are upgraded from secondary to "important" or "fundamental." At the same time the "accumulation" of private property by citizens is banned. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo

A man is silhouetted near a picture of late Cuban President Fidel Castro before the beginning of the public pomore

A man is silhouetted near a picture of late Cuban President Fidel Castro before the beginning of the public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution at the Nguyen Van Troi Polyclinic in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. Private businesses and non-farm cooperatives are included for the first time in the new version as legitimate economic activity, and the role of joint ventures and other forms of foreign investment are upgraded from secondary to "important" or "fundamental." At the same time the "accumulation" of private property by citizens is banned. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo
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A Cuban reads the draft proposal of changes to the constitution during the beginning of a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution at the Nguyen Van Troi Polyclinic in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. The new version adds the presumption of innocence in criminal cases and the right to habeas corpus. For the first time a person can sue the state for damages and negligence. However, the judicial system remains unchanged and all lawyers are government employees. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo

A Cuban reads the draft proposal of changes to the constitution during the beginning of a public political dismore

A Cuban reads the draft proposal of changes to the constitution during the beginning of a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution at the Nguyen Van Troi Polyclinic in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. The new version adds the presumption of innocence in criminal cases and the right to habeas corpus. For the first time a person can sue the state for damages and negligence. However, the judicial system remains unchanged and all lawyers are government employees. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo
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Cuban same-sex couple Mercedes Garcia and Onelia Miranda, who have been together for 10 years, water a plant on the balcony of their apartment in Havana, Cuba August 10, 2018. All prohibitions of discrimination in the new version add gender identity and the clause on marriage now refers to "persons" rather than man and woman. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo

Cuban same-sex couple Mercedes Garcia and Onelia Miranda, who have been together for 10 years, water a plant omore

Cuban same-sex couple Mercedes Garcia and Onelia Miranda, who have been together for 10 years, water a plant on the balcony of their apartment in Havana, Cuba August 10, 2018. All prohibitions of discrimination in the new version add gender identity and the clause on marriage now refers to "persons" rather than man and woman. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo
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A Cuban looks on as she waits for the beginning of a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution at the Nguyen Van Troi Polyclinic in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. Government opponents have blasted the top down process as a "fraud" and say the proposals will be pushed through with few substantive changes. They question whether citizens will be free to speak their minds on issues such as one-party rule and capitalism versus socialism in a land where public debate on these subjects is taboo. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo

A Cuban looks on as she waits for the beginning of a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era consmore

A Cuban looks on as she waits for the beginning of a public political discussion to revamp a Cold War-era constitution at the Nguyen Van Troi Polyclinic in Havana, Cuba August 13, 2018. Government opponents have blasted the top down process as a "fraud" and say the proposals will be pushed through with few substantive changes. They question whether citizens will be free to speak their minds on issues such as one-party rule and capitalism versus socialism in a land where public debate on these subjects is taboo. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo
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A general view shows the Plaza de la Revolucion in Havana, Cuba August 10, 2018. The proposals do not by themselves reduce risk or change the rules of doing business in Cuba, but they do further foreign investment and are another step toward a mixed economy and modern society, foreign businessmen and diplomats said. Cuban officials say changes in government structure aim to improve accountability and administration of the state-run economy. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo

A general view shows the Plaza de la Revolucion in Havana, Cuba August 10, 2018. The proposals do not by themsmore

A general view shows the Plaza de la Revolucion in Havana, Cuba August 10, 2018. The proposals do not by themselves reduce risk or change the rules of doing business in Cuba, but they do further foreign investment and are another step toward a mixed economy and modern society, foreign businessmen and diplomats said. Cuban officials say changes in government structure aim to improve accountability and administration of the state-run economy. REUTERS/Tomas Bravo
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