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写真 | 2019年 01月 25日 10:25 JST

How Venezuela got here: a timeline of the political crisis

Venezuela plunged deeper into political turmoil this week when Juan Guaido, the leader of the opposition-run congress, declared himself interim president, the boldest challenge to socialist leader Nicolas Maduro's rule in years. The following is a timeline on how Venezuela's political crisis has evolved since the death of socialist leader Hugo Chavez, against a backdrop of hyperinflationary economic collapse in the OPEC nation.

Pictured: A protester holds a national flag as a bank branch, housed in the magistracy of the Supreme Court of Justice, burns during a rally against Maduro in Caracas, June 12, 2017.

REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins

Venezuela plunged deeper into political turmoil this week when Juan Guaido, the leader of the opposition-run cmore

Venezuela plunged deeper into political turmoil this week when Juan Guaido, the leader of the opposition-run congress, declared himself interim president, the boldest challenge to socialist leader Nicolas Maduro's rule in years. The following is a timeline on how Venezuela's political crisis has evolved since the death of socialist leader Hugo Chavez, against a backdrop of hyperinflationary economic collapse in the OPEC nation. Pictured: A protester holds a national flag as a bank branch, housed in the magistracy of the Supreme Court of Justice, burns during a rally against Maduro in Caracas, June 12, 2017. REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins
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MARCH 2013: Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, who won over the country's poor with so-called "21st century socialism" during his 14-year rule, dies from cancer at 58. His preferred successor, Vice President Nicolas Maduro, takes office.

Pictured: Supporters of Hugo Chavez react to the announcement of his death outside the hospital where he was being treated in Caracas, March 5, 2013. 

REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins

MARCH 2013: Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, who won over the country's poor with so-called "21st century socmore

MARCH 2013: Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, who won over the country's poor with so-called "21st century socialism" during his 14-year rule, dies from cancer at 58. His preferred successor, Vice President Nicolas Maduro, takes office. Pictured: Supporters of Hugo Chavez react to the announcement of his death outside the hospital where he was being treated in Caracas, March 5, 2013. REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins
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APRIL 2013: In presidential elections for a six-year term, Maduro narrowly defeats opposition candidate Henrique Capriles, who had lost to Chavez by a wider margin the year before. Capriles and allies say the vote was marred by fraud and call on supporters to take to the streets.

Pictured: Maduro gestures after being sworn into office in Caracas, April 19, 2013. 

REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins

APRIL 2013: In presidential elections for a six-year term, Maduro narrowly defeats opposition candidate Henriqmore

APRIL 2013: In presidential elections for a six-year term, Maduro narrowly defeats opposition candidate Henrique Capriles, who had lost to Chavez by a wider margin the year before. Capriles and allies say the vote was marred by fraud and call on supporters to take to the streets. Pictured: Maduro gestures after being sworn into office in Caracas, April 19, 2013. REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins
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FEBRUARY 2014: Venezuelan security forces arrest well-known opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez on charges of fomenting unrest, after a wave of protests known as 'The Exit,' seeking to oust Maduro.

Pictured: Leopoldo Lopez gets into a National Guard armored vehicle after handing himself over to security forces in Caracas, February 18, 2014. 

REUTERS/Jorge Silva

FEBRUARY 2014: Venezuelan security forces arrest well-known opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez on charges of fommore

FEBRUARY 2014: Venezuelan security forces arrest well-known opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez on charges of fomenting unrest, after a wave of protests known as 'The Exit,' seeking to oust Maduro. Pictured: Leopoldo Lopez gets into a National Guard armored vehicle after handing himself over to security forces in Caracas, February 18, 2014. REUTERS/Jorge Silva
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DECEMBER 2015: The opposition Democratic Unity coalition wins control of Venezuela's legislative body, the National Assembly, for the first time in 16 years, riding a wave of popular discontent with a prolonged recession and rising inflation after oil prices collapsed.

Pictured: Lilian Tintori (center L), wife of jailed opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez, celebrates next to candidates of the opposition coalition (MUD) in Caracas, December 7, 2015.

REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins

DECEMBER 2015: The opposition Democratic Unity coalition wins control of Venezuela's legislative body, the Natmore

DECEMBER 2015: The opposition Democratic Unity coalition wins control of Venezuela's legislative body, the National Assembly, for the first time in 16 years, riding a wave of popular discontent with a prolonged recession and rising inflation after oil prices collapsed. Pictured: Lilian Tintori (center L), wife of jailed opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez, celebrates next to candidates of the opposition coalition (MUD) in Caracas, December 7, 2015. REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins
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MARCH 2016: Venezuela's Supreme Court, which has consistently sided with the ruling Socialist Party, announces it is taking over the functions of the National Assembly. The court quickly walks back the decision amid international outcry. But the event sparks months of anti-government protests that ultimately leave more than 100 dead.

Pictured: Protesters clash with riot police during a rally to demand a referendum to remove Maduro in Caracas, September 1, 2016. 

REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins

MARCH 2016: Venezuela's Supreme Court, which has consistently sided with the ruling Socialist Party, announcesmore

MARCH 2016: Venezuela's Supreme Court, which has consistently sided with the ruling Socialist Party, announces it is taking over the functions of the National Assembly. The court quickly walks back the decision amid international outcry. But the event sparks months of anti-government protests that ultimately leave more than 100 dead. Pictured: Protesters clash with riot police during a rally to demand a referendum to remove Maduro in Caracas, September 1, 2016. REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins
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JULY 2017: Venezuela calls a referendum, boycotted by the opposition, to approve the creation of an all-powerful legislative body called the Constituent Assembly. It is nominally tasked with rewriting the constitution but quickly takes over crucial legislative functions, leading to accusations that Maduro is undermining democracy.

Pictured: Flames erupt as clashes break out while the Constituent Assembly election is being carried out in Caracas, July 30, 2017. 

REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins

JULY 2017: Venezuela calls a referendum, boycotted by the opposition, to approve the creation of an all-powerfmore

JULY 2017: Venezuela calls a referendum, boycotted by the opposition, to approve the creation of an all-powerful legislative body called the Constituent Assembly. It is nominally tasked with rewriting the constitution but quickly takes over crucial legislative functions, leading to accusations that Maduro is undermining democracy. Pictured: Flames erupt as clashes break out while the Constituent Assembly election is being carried out in Caracas, July 30, 2017. REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins
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FEBRUARY 2018: Mediation talks between the government and the opposition collapse amid disagreement over the timing of the next presidential election. The government announces the vote will be held in the first half of the year, and the main opposition parties pledge to boycott.

Pictured: Presidential candidate Henri Falcon of the Avanzada Progresista party greets supporters during a campaign rally in Caracas, May 14, 2018. 

REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins

FEBRUARY 2018: Mediation talks between the government and the opposition collapse amid disagreement over the tmore

FEBRUARY 2018: Mediation talks between the government and the opposition collapse amid disagreement over the timing of the next presidential election. The government announces the vote will be held in the first half of the year, and the main opposition parties pledge to boycott. Pictured: Presidential candidate Henri Falcon of the Avanzada Progresista party greets supporters during a campaign rally in Caracas, May 14, 2018. REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins
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MAY 2018: Maduro cruises to re-election over a lesser-known opposition candidate amid low turnout and allegations of vote-buying by the government. The domestic opposition, United States and Lima Group of mostly right-leaning Latin American governments say they do not recognize the results.

Pictured: Maduro arrives to take his oath as re-elected president at the Palacio Federal Legislativo in Caracas, May 24, 2018. 

REUTERS/Marco Bello

MAY 2018: Maduro cruises to re-election over a lesser-known opposition candidate amid low turnout and allegatimore

MAY 2018: Maduro cruises to re-election over a lesser-known opposition candidate amid low turnout and allegations of vote-buying by the government. The domestic opposition, United States and Lima Group of mostly right-leaning Latin American governments say they do not recognize the results. Pictured: Maduro arrives to take his oath as re-elected president at the Palacio Federal Legislativo in Caracas, May 24, 2018. REUTERS/Marco Bello
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JANUARY 2019: Maduro goes ahead with his inauguration for a second six-year term, ignoring the advice of several Latin American governments. Juan Guaido, a virtually unknown opposition lawmaker who assumed leadership of the largely toothless National Assembly days earlier, calls Maduro a "usurper."

Pictured: A man holding a placard that reads "Maduro usurper" takes part in a gathering with members of the Venezuelan National Assembly in Caracas, January 11, 2019. 

REUTERS/Manaure Quintero

JANUARY 2019: Maduro goes ahead with his inauguration for a second six-year term, ignoring the advice of severmore

JANUARY 2019: Maduro goes ahead with his inauguration for a second six-year term, ignoring the advice of several Latin American governments. Juan Guaido, a virtually unknown opposition lawmaker who assumed leadership of the largely toothless National Assembly days earlier, calls Maduro a "usurper." Pictured: A man holding a placard that reads "Maduro usurper" takes part in a gathering with members of the Venezuelan National Assembly in Caracas, January 11, 2019. REUTERS/Manaure Quintero
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JANUARY 2019: Juan Guaido swears himself in as interim president at the opposition's largest rally since 2017. He is almost instantly recognized as the country's legitimate president by the United States and many of Venezuela's neighbors.

Pictured: Juan Guaido holds a copy of the Venezuelan constitution during a rally against Maduro's government in Caracas, January 23, 2019. 

REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins

JANUARY 2019: Juan Guaido swears himself in as interim president at the opposition's largest rally since 2017.more

JANUARY 2019: Juan Guaido swears himself in as interim president at the opposition's largest rally since 2017. He is almost instantly recognized as the country's legitimate president by the United States and many of Venezuela's neighbors. Pictured: Juan Guaido holds a copy of the Venezuelan constitution during a rally against Maduro's government in Caracas, January 23, 2019. REUTERS/Carlos Garcia Rawlins
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