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写真 | 2018年 10月 9日 00:15 JST

Nobel Prize winners

Americans William Nordhaus and Paul Romer (pictured), pioneers in adapting economic theory to take better account of environmental issues and technological progress, shared the 2018 Nobel Economics Prize. In an award that turned the spotlight on the global debate over risks associated with climate change, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said the laureates' work helped answer fundamental questions on how to promote long-term sustainable growth and enhance human welfare. Romer had shown how economic forces govern the willingness of firms to produce new ideas and innovations, laying the foundations for a new model for development, known as endogenous growth theory. The prize took Romer, of New York University's Stern School of Business, by surprise. "I got two phone calls this morning, and I didn't answer either one because I thought it was some spam call, so I wasn't expecting the prize," he said, while welcoming the chance to expand on his theory. "I think ... many people think that protecting he environment will be so costly and so hard that they just want to ignore (this)...," he told a news conference via phone link.
  
NYU Stern School of Business/via REUTERS

Americans William Nordhaus and Paul Romer (pictured), pioneers in adapting economic theory to take better accomore

Americans William Nordhaus and Paul Romer (pictured), pioneers in adapting economic theory to take better account of environmental issues and technological progress, shared the 2018 Nobel Economics Prize. In an award that turned the spotlight on the global debate over risks associated with climate change, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said the laureates' work helped answer fundamental questions on how to promote long-term sustainable growth and enhance human welfare. Romer had shown how economic forces govern the willingness of firms to produce new ideas and innovations, laying the foundations for a new model for development, known as endogenous growth theory. The prize took Romer, of New York University's Stern School of Business, by surprise. "I got two phone calls this morning, and I didn't answer either one because I thought it was some spam call, so I wasn't expecting the prize," he said, while welcoming the chance to expand on his theory. "I think ... many people think that protecting he environment will be so costly and so hard that they just want to ignore (this)...," he told a news conference via phone link. NYU Stern School of Business/via REUTERS
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Nordhaus, of Yale University, was the first person to create a quantitative model that described the interplay between the economy and the climate. "Their findings have significantly broadened the scope of economic analysis by constructing models that explain how the market economy interacts with nature and knowledge," the academy said in statement. Hours before the award, the United Nations panel on climate changed warned of the risks of more frequent heat waves, floods and drought in some regions as well as the loss of species without a radical rethink in how societies operate.


REUTERS/Michelle McLoughlin

Nordhaus, of Yale University, was the first person to create a quantitative model that described the interplaymore

Nordhaus, of Yale University, was the first person to create a quantitative model that described the interplay between the economy and the climate. "Their findings have significantly broadened the scope of economic analysis by constructing models that explain how the market economy interacts with nature and knowledge," the academy said in statement. Hours before the award, the United Nations panel on climate changed warned of the risks of more frequent heat waves, floods and drought in some regions as well as the loss of species without a radical rethink in how societies operate. REUTERS/Michelle McLoughlin
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Nadia Murad, a Yazidi rights activist and survivor of sexual slavery by Islamic State, shares the 2018 Nobel Peace Prize with Denis Mukwege, a doctor who helps victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. They were honored for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war, the Norwegian Nobel Committee said. Murad is an advocate for the Yazidi minority in Iraq and for refugee and women's rights in general. She was enslaved and raped by Islamic State fighters in Mosul, Iraq, in 2014. "Nadia Murad is the witness who tells of the abuses perpetrated against herself and others," the Committee said in its citation. "Each of them in their own way has helped to give greater visibility to war-time sexual violence, so that the perpetrators can be held accountable for their actions." Murad said she shared the award "with all Yazidis with all the Iraqis, Kurds and all the minorities and all survivors of sexual violence around the world ... For myself, I think of my mother, who was murdered by Daesh," she said said in a statement to Reuters, using an Arabic term for Islamic State. Murad is the second youngest Nobel Prize laureate after Malala Yousafzai.
 
REUTERS/Vincent Kessler

Nadia Murad, a Yazidi rights activist and survivor of sexual slavery by Islamic State, shares the 2018 Nobel Pmore

Nadia Murad, a Yazidi rights activist and survivor of sexual slavery by Islamic State, shares the 2018 Nobel Peace Prize with Denis Mukwege, a doctor who helps victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. They were honored for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war, the Norwegian Nobel Committee said. Murad is an advocate for the Yazidi minority in Iraq and for refugee and women's rights in general. She was enslaved and raped by Islamic State fighters in Mosul, Iraq, in 2014. "Nadia Murad is the witness who tells of the abuses perpetrated against herself and others," the Committee said in its citation. "Each of them in their own way has helped to give greater visibility to war-time sexual violence, so that the perpetrators can be held accountable for their actions." Murad said she shared the award "with all Yazidis with all the Iraqis, Kurds and all the minorities and all survivors of sexual violence around the world ... For myself, I think of my mother, who was murdered by Daesh," she said said in a statement to Reuters, using an Arabic term for Islamic State. Murad is the second youngest Nobel Prize laureate after Malala Yousafzai. REUTERS/Vincent Kessler
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Denis Mukwege, a doctor who helps victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo, shares the Nobel Peace Prize with Nadia Murad. "Denis Mukwege is the helper who has devoted his life to defending these victims," the Committee said in its citation. Mukwege heads the Panzi Hospital in the eastern Congo city of Bukavu. The clinic receives thousands of women each year, many of them requiring surgery from sexual violence. "Rape in war has been a crime for centuries. But it was a crime in the shadows. The two laureates have both shone a light on it," Dan Smith, Director of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), told Reuters. Mukwege dedicated his Nobel award to all women affected by rape and sexual violence. He has performed surgery on scores of women after they had been raped by armed men, and campaigned to highlight their plight. He also provides HIV/AIDS treatment as well as free maternal care. Although the Second Congo War, which killed more than five million people, formally ended in 2003, violence remains rampant, with militias frequently targeting civilians. The Panzi Hospital has also been the target of threats, and in 2012 Mukwege's home was invaded by armed men who held his daughters at gunpoint, shot at him and killed his bodyguard. Mukwege was in the operating room when he was told the news. "Dear survivors all over the world, I would like to tell you that through this prize, the world is listening to you and rejects indifference, the world refuses to stand idly by in the face of your suffering," he said.

REUTERS/Yves Herman

Denis Mukwege, a doctor who helps victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo, shares the Nmore

Denis Mukwege, a doctor who helps victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo, shares the Nobel Peace Prize with Nadia Murad. "Denis Mukwege is the helper who has devoted his life to defending these victims," the Committee said in its citation. Mukwege heads the Panzi Hospital in the eastern Congo city of Bukavu. The clinic receives thousands of women each year, many of them requiring surgery from sexual violence. "Rape in war has been a crime for centuries. But it was a crime in the shadows. The two laureates have both shone a light on it," Dan Smith, Director of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), told Reuters. Mukwege dedicated his Nobel award to all women affected by rape and sexual violence. He has performed surgery on scores of women after they had been raped by armed men, and campaigned to highlight their plight. He also provides HIV/AIDS treatment as well as free maternal care. Although the Second Congo War, which killed more than five million people, formally ended in 2003, violence remains rampant, with militias frequently targeting civilians. The Panzi Hospital has also been the target of threats, and in 2012 Mukwege's home was invaded by armed men who held his daughters at gunpoint, shot at him and killed his bodyguard. Mukwege was in the operating room when he was told the news. "Dear survivors all over the world, I would like to tell you that through this prize, the world is listening to you and rejects indifference, the world refuses to stand idly by in the face of your suffering," he said. REUTERS/Yves Herman
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Frances Arnold of the California Institute of Technology becomes only the fifth woman to win a chemistry Nobel. Arnold, George Smith and Gregory Winter won the 2018 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for harnessing the power of evolution to generate novel proteins used in everything from environmentally friendly detergents to cancer drugs. She was awarded half of the $1 million prize while Smith and Winter shared the other half. "Some people breed cats and dogs. I breed molecules," Arnold told Reuters after learning of the award, which she said had come as a complete surprise. Her research on enzymes -- proteins that catalyze chemical reactions -- laid the bedrock for the development of better industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals. "There are enzymes now in detergents that we use in our dishwasher and have been evolved by this process. There are also enzymes that can create new types of biofuels or that catalyze the formation of building blocks for new medicines," said chairman of the Nobel chemistry committee Claes Gustafsson. "All this you can do with enzymes that Frances Arnold has developed."

REUTERS/Kyle Grillot

Frances Arnold of the California Institute of Technology becomes only the fifth woman to win a chemistry Nobelmore

Frances Arnold of the California Institute of Technology becomes only the fifth woman to win a chemistry Nobel. Arnold, George Smith and Gregory Winter won the 2018 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for harnessing the power of evolution to generate novel proteins used in everything from environmentally friendly detergents to cancer drugs. She was awarded half of the $1 million prize while Smith and Winter shared the other half. "Some people breed cats and dogs. I breed molecules," Arnold told Reuters after learning of the award, which she said had come as a complete surprise. Her research on enzymes -- proteins that catalyze chemical reactions -- laid the bedrock for the development of better industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals. "There are enzymes now in detergents that we use in our dishwasher and have been evolved by this process. There are also enzymes that can create new types of biofuels or that catalyze the formation of building blocks for new medicines," said chairman of the Nobel chemistry committee Claes Gustafsson. "All this you can do with enzymes that Frances Arnold has developed." REUTERS/Kyle Grillot
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Gregory Winter poses outside Trinity College Cambridge after being awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Winter shared half of the prize with American George Smith. The fruits of their work include the world's top-selling prescription medicine -- the antibody injection Humira sold by AbbVie for treating rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Humira, or adalimumab, was the first drug based on Winter's work to win regulatory approval in 2002. It has since gone on to become a blockbuster, with sales last year of $18 billion. "With this medicine, far fewer people with rheumatoid arthritis are forced to use a wheelchair," said immunologist Dan Davies of the University of Manchester. Winter said he was surprised by the huge commercial success of antibody drugs, which he put down in large part to the high prices that drug companies have managed to charge for them. "I had no idea they would be so commercially successful ... it was a complete paradigm shift," he told reporters in a conference call. "Antibodies as a pharmaceutical product are still growing great guns."

REUTERS/Chris Radburn

Gregory Winter poses outside Trinity College Cambridge after being awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Wintmore

Gregory Winter poses outside Trinity College Cambridge after being awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Winter shared half of the prize with American George Smith. The fruits of their work include the world's top-selling prescription medicine -- the antibody injection Humira sold by AbbVie for treating rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Humira, or adalimumab, was the first drug based on Winter's work to win regulatory approval in 2002. It has since gone on to become a blockbuster, with sales last year of $18 billion. "With this medicine, far fewer people with rheumatoid arthritis are forced to use a wheelchair," said immunologist Dan Davies of the University of Manchester. Winter said he was surprised by the huge commercial success of antibody drugs, which he put down in large part to the high prices that drug companies have managed to charge for them. "I had no idea they would be so commercially successful ... it was a complete paradigm shift," he told reporters in a conference call. "Antibodies as a pharmaceutical product are still growing great guns." REUTERS/Chris Radburn
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George P. Smith from the University of Missouri, takes phone calls after learning he was among the three who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Smith developed a method using a virus that infects bacteria to produce new proteins while Gregory Winter used the same phage display technique for the directed evolution of antibodies, with the aim of producing more effective medicines. Other antibody drugs at the cutting edge of medicine use the same technology, including a number of treatments that have proved highly effective against cancer.

Courtesy of Marjorie Sable/via REUTERS

George P. Smith from the University of Missouri, takes phone calls after learning he was among the three who wmore

George P. Smith from the University of Missouri, takes phone calls after learning he was among the three who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Smith developed a method using a virus that infects bacteria to produce new proteins while Gregory Winter used the same phage display technique for the directed evolution of antibodies, with the aim of producing more effective medicines. Other antibody drugs at the cutting edge of medicine use the same technology, including a number of treatments that have proved highly effective against cancer. Courtesy of Marjorie Sable/via REUTERS
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Donna Strickland, an associate professor at the University of Waterloo, poses with her paper that started her career 30 years ago, after winning the Nobel Prize for Physics at her home in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. A trio of American, French and Canadian scientists won the 2018 Nobel Prize for Physics for breakthroughs in laser technology that have turned light beams into precision tools for everything from eye surgery to micro-machining. Strickland becomes only the third woman to win a Nobel for physics, after Marie Curie in 1903 and Maria Goeppert-Mayer in 1963. "Obviously we need to celebrate women physicists," Strickland said shortly after learning of the prize. The Nobel prizes have long been dominated by male scientists, and none more so than physics. Strickland is the first female Nobel laureate in any field in three years. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said last year it would seek to more actively encourage nominations of women researchers to begin addressing the imbalance. She shares half of the prize with Gerard Mourou for research centered on developing the most intense laser pulses ever created by humans, paving the way for the precision instruments used today in corrective eye surgery and industrial applications.

REUTERS/Peter Power

Donna Strickland, an associate professor at the University of Waterloo, poses with her paper that started her more

Donna Strickland, an associate professor at the University of Waterloo, poses with her paper that started her career 30 years ago, after winning the Nobel Prize for Physics at her home in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. A trio of American, French and Canadian scientists won the 2018 Nobel Prize for Physics for breakthroughs in laser technology that have turned light beams into precision tools for everything from eye surgery to micro-machining. Strickland becomes only the third woman to win a Nobel for physics, after Marie Curie in 1903 and Maria Goeppert-Mayer in 1963. "Obviously we need to celebrate women physicists," Strickland said shortly after learning of the prize. The Nobel prizes have long been dominated by male scientists, and none more so than physics. Strickland is the first female Nobel laureate in any field in three years. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said last year it would seek to more actively encourage nominations of women researchers to begin addressing the imbalance. She shares half of the prize with Gerard Mourou for research centered on developing the most intense laser pulses ever created by humans, paving the way for the precision instruments used today in corrective eye surgery and industrial applications. REUTERS/Peter Power
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Arthur Ashkin of Bell Laboratories in the United States won the other half of the 2018 physics prize for inventing "optical tweezers". The inventions by the three scientists awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics date back to the mid-1980s and over the years they have revolutionized laser physics. "Advanced precision instruments are opening up unexplored areas of research and a multitude of industrial and medical applications," the academy said on awarding the nine million Swedish crown ($1 million) prize. Ashkin's work was based on the realization that the pressure of a beam of light could push microscopic objects and trap them in position. A breakthrough came in 1987, when he used the new optical tweezers to grab living bacteria without harming them. At 96, Ashkin is the oldest ever Nobel prize winner, but he is still busy with fresh research. "I am busy working right now, writing an important paper on solar energy," he told Reuters in a telephone interview. "I'm surprised," Ashkin said about winning the prize. "A guy called me up on the phone and woke me up."

REUTERS/Brendan McDermid

Arthur Ashkin of Bell Laboratories in the United States won the other half of the 2018 physics prize for invenmore

Arthur Ashkin of Bell Laboratories in the United States won the other half of the 2018 physics prize for inventing "optical tweezers". The inventions by the three scientists awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics date back to the mid-1980s and over the years they have revolutionized laser physics. "Advanced precision instruments are opening up unexplored areas of research and a multitude of industrial and medical applications," the academy said on awarding the nine million Swedish crown ($1 million) prize. Ashkin's work was based on the realization that the pressure of a beam of light could push microscopic objects and trap them in position. A breakthrough came in 1987, when he used the new optical tweezers to grab living bacteria without harming them. At 96, Ashkin is the oldest ever Nobel prize winner, but he is still busy with fresh research. "I am busy working right now, writing an important paper on solar energy," he told Reuters in a telephone interview. "I'm surprised," Ashkin said about winning the prize. "A guy called me up on the phone and woke me up." REUTERS/Brendan McDermid
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Frenchman Gerard Mourou, who also has U.S. citizenship, shared half of the physics prize with Strickland, for work on high-intensity lasers. The inventions by Mourou, Strickland and Ashkin date back to the mid-1980s and over the years they have revolutionized laser physics. Mourou and Strickland's research centered on developing the most intense laser pulses ever created by humans, paving the way for the precision instruments used today in corrective eye surgery and industrial applications.

REUTERS/Charles Platiau

Frenchman Gerard Mourou, who also has U.S. citizenship, shared half of the physics prize with Strickland, for more

Frenchman Gerard Mourou, who also has U.S. citizenship, shared half of the physics prize with Strickland, for work on high-intensity lasers. The inventions by Mourou, Strickland and Ashkin date back to the mid-1980s and over the years they have revolutionized laser physics. Mourou and Strickland's research centered on developing the most intense laser pulses ever created by humans, paving the way for the precision instruments used today in corrective eye surgery and industrial applications. REUTERS/Charles Platiau
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American James Allison (L) and Japanese Tasuku Honjo (R) won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for game-changing discoveries about how to harness and manipulate the immune system to fight cancer. The scientists' work in the 1990s has since swiftly led to new and dramatically improved therapies for cancers such as melanoma and lung cancer, which had previously been extremely difficult to treat. Allison and Honjo showed releasing the brakes on the immune system can unleash its power to attack cancer. The resulting treatments, known as immune checkpoint blockade, have "fundamentally changed the outcome" for some advanced cancer patients," the Nobel institute said.

TT News Agency/Fredrik Sandberg via REUTERS

American James Allison (L) and Japanese Tasuku Honjo (R) won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for gamore

American James Allison (L) and Japanese Tasuku Honjo (R) won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for game-changing discoveries about how to harness and manipulate the immune system to fight cancer. The scientists' work in the 1990s has since swiftly led to new and dramatically improved therapies for cancers such as melanoma and lung cancer, which had previously been extremely difficult to treat. Allison and Honjo showed releasing the brakes on the immune system can unleash its power to attack cancer. The resulting treatments, known as immune checkpoint blockade, have "fundamentally changed the outcome" for some advanced cancer patients," the Nobel institute said. TT News Agency/Fredrik Sandberg via REUTERS
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James Allison speaks during a news conference in New York. Allison's and Honjo's work focused on proteins that act as brakes on the immune system - preventing the body's main immune cells, known as T-cells, from attacking tumors effectively. Allison, a professor at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, worked on a protein known as CTLA-4 and realized that if this could be blocked, a brake would be released. "It immediately occurred to me, and some of the people in my lab, that maybe we can use this to unleash the immune system to attack cancer cells," Allison told a news conference after getting the prize. Honjo, a professor at Kyoto University since 1984, separately discovered a second protein called PD-1 and found that it too acted as an immune system brake, but with a different mechanism. The discoveries led to the creation of a multibillion-dollar market for new cancer medicines.

REUTERS/Shannon Stapleton

James Allison speaks during a news conference in New York. Allison's and Honjo's work focused on proteins thatmore

James Allison speaks during a news conference in New York. Allison's and Honjo's work focused on proteins that act as brakes on the immune system - preventing the body's main immune cells, known as T-cells, from attacking tumors effectively. Allison, a professor at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, worked on a protein known as CTLA-4 and realized that if this could be blocked, a brake would be released. "It immediately occurred to me, and some of the people in my lab, that maybe we can use this to unleash the immune system to attack cancer cells," Allison told a news conference after getting the prize. Honjo, a professor at Kyoto University since 1984, separately discovered a second protein called PD-1 and found that it too acted as an immune system brake, but with a different mechanism. The discoveries led to the creation of a multibillion-dollar market for new cancer medicines. REUTERS/Shannon Stapleton
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