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写真 | 2017年 10月 5日 03:30 JST

The art of North Korea

The head of the Mansudae Art Museum Ji Zhengtai talks about a painting by a North Korean artist in the studio of the gallery in the 798 art district in Beijing, China. Art studios house thousands of North Korean artists who cater to burgeoning demand for their work. "Chinese have begun collecting art, and North Korean art is much easier and cheaper for them to obtain," says Park Young-jeong, a research fellow at the Korea Culture and Tourism Institute, a Seoul-based organisation.

REUTERS/Thomas Peter

The head of the Mansudae Art Museum Ji Zhengtai talks about a painting by a North Korean artist in the studio more

The head of the Mansudae Art Museum Ji Zhengtai talks about a painting by a North Korean artist in the studio of the gallery in the 798 art district in Beijing, China. Art studios house thousands of North Korean artists who cater to burgeoning demand for their work. "Chinese have begun collecting art, and North Korean art is much easier and cheaper for them to obtain," says Park Young-jeong, a research fellow at the Korea Culture and Tourism Institute, a Seoul-based organisation. REUTERS/Thomas Peter
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People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. In recent years as countries have responded to North Korea's weapons tests with sanctions, Mansudae and other art studios have increasingly played a more controversial role -- helping Pyongyang raise cash abroad. North Korea has long been punished for alleged underhand dealings in minerals, finance and arms; art was seen more as a channel for mutual understanding. That is changing.

REUTERS/Aly Song

People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, more

People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. In recent years as countries have responded to North Korea's weapons tests with sanctions, Mansudae and other art studios have increasingly played a more controversial role -- helping Pyongyang raise cash abroad. North Korea has long been punished for alleged underhand dealings in minerals, finance and arms; art was seen more as a channel for mutual understanding. That is changing. REUTERS/Aly Song
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The head of the Mansudae Art Museum, Ji Zhengtai, talks about paintings by a North Korean artist in the gallery in Beijing, China. The museum says it is the Mansudae Art Studio's official overseas gallery. Mansudae is run by the North Korean state. Its output ranges from statues of global leaders to propaganda posters, embroidery and more. It has built monuments and statues in at least 15 African countries, according to independent United Nations sanctions experts.

REUTERS/Thomas Peter

The head of the Mansudae Art Museum, Ji Zhengtai, talks about paintings by a North Korean artist in the gallermore

The head of the Mansudae Art Museum, Ji Zhengtai, talks about paintings by a North Korean artist in the gallery in Beijing, China. The museum says it is the Mansudae Art Studio's official overseas gallery. Mansudae is run by the North Korean state. Its output ranges from statues of global leaders to propaganda posters, embroidery and more. It has built monuments and statues in at least 15 African countries, according to independent United Nations sanctions experts. REUTERS/Thomas Peter
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North Korea themed postcards are for sale at the Mansudae Art Museum in Beijing, China. In a report in February, they said that a part of Mansudae called Mansudae Overseas Projects was a front for the North Korean state to cash in on military deals. As well as monumental statues, they found it built military installations such as a munitions factory and bases in Namibia. A diplomat at the North Korean mission to the U.N. in Geneva said Mansudae had nothing to do with funding weapons manufacturing. No one from Mansudae could be reached.

REUTERS/Thomas Peter

North Korea themed postcards are for sale at the Mansudae Art Museum in Beijing, China. In a report in Februarmore

North Korea themed postcards are for sale at the Mansudae Art Museum in Beijing, China. In a report in February, they said that a part of Mansudae called Mansudae Overseas Projects was a front for the North Korean state to cash in on military deals. As well as monumental statues, they found it built military installations such as a munitions factory and bases in Namibia. A diplomat at the North Korean mission to the U.N. in Geneva said Mansudae had nothing to do with funding weapons manufacturing. No one from Mansudae could be reached. REUTERS/Thomas Peter
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A visitor looks at works by North Korean artists at the Mansudae Art Museum in Beijing, China. The U.N. Security Council banned Mansudae's statue business in 2016. On Aug. 5, after Pyongyang conducted more weapons tests, the Security Council blacklisted Mansudae Art Studio, subjecting it to a global asset freeze and travel ban. Diplomats say this will prevent Mansudae from conducting business. "With this listing, anything Mansudae produces - including paintings, other artwork, monuments, buildings, and other construction - cannot be bought and should be frozen per the asset freeze," said a U.N. Security Council diplomat, speaking on condition of anonymity.

REUTERS/Thomas Peter

A visitor looks at works by North Korean artists at the Mansudae Art Museum in Beijing, China. The U.N. Securimore

A visitor looks at works by North Korean artists at the Mansudae Art Museum in Beijing, China. The U.N. Security Council banned Mansudae's statue business in 2016. On Aug. 5, after Pyongyang conducted more weapons tests, the Security Council blacklisted Mansudae Art Studio, subjecting it to a global asset freeze and travel ban. Diplomats say this will prevent Mansudae from conducting business. "With this listing, anything Mansudae produces - including paintings, other artwork, monuments, buildings, and other construction - cannot be bought and should be frozen per the asset freeze," said a U.N. Security Council diplomat, speaking on condition of anonymity. REUTERS/Thomas Peter
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5 / 24
The head of the Mansudae Art Museum Ji Zhengtai talks about a painting by a North Korean artist during an interview at the gallery in Beijing, China. It is not possible to estimate the total value of Mansudae's dealings, but the Security Council diplomat said the business had earned tens of millions of dollars globally. In a further resolution on Sept. 11, the Security Council decided that all joint ventures with North Korean entities or individuals must be shut down within 120 days, or by mid-January. Exactly what the measures mean for existing Mansudae art has yet to become clear. Mansudae Art Gallery says it is the studio's official overseas gallery. Its head insists the sanctions do not apply to it and says they have had no impact on his business.

REUTERS/Thomas Peter

The head of the Mansudae Art Museum Ji Zhengtai talks about a painting by a North Korean artist during an intemore

The head of the Mansudae Art Museum Ji Zhengtai talks about a painting by a North Korean artist during an interview at the gallery in Beijing, China. It is not possible to estimate the total value of Mansudae's dealings, but the Security Council diplomat said the business had earned tens of millions of dollars globally. In a further resolution on Sept. 11, the Security Council decided that all joint ventures with North Korean entities or individuals must be shut down within 120 days, or by mid-January. Exactly what the measures mean for existing Mansudae art has yet to become clear. Mansudae Art Gallery says it is the studio's official overseas gallery. Its head insists the sanctions do not apply to it and says they have had no impact on his business. REUTERS/Thomas Peter
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6 / 24
A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Super-hardline for hardline!". Reuters spoke to at least 30 experts - collectors, art historians, academics and people who have sold North Korean art globally. Many said the market for paintings is niche and amounts to little in terms of revenue compared with the billion-plus dollars North Korea has raised every year selling coal and other minerals abroad.

REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Super-hardline for hardline!". Reuters spoke to at least 30 experts -more

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Super-hardline for hardline!". Reuters spoke to at least 30 experts - collectors, art historians, academics and people who have sold North Korean art globally. Many said the market for paintings is niche and amounts to little in terms of revenue compared with the billion-plus dollars North Korea has raised every year selling coal and other minerals abroad. REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji
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A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "For the new world without nuclear weapons!". Even so, they say North Korean diplomats in Europe have been enthusiastic to promote art exhibitions with the simple aim of bringing in hard currency.

REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "For the new world without nuclear weapons!". Even so, they say North more

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "For the new world without nuclear weapons!". Even so, they say North Korean diplomats in Europe have been enthusiastic to promote art exhibitions with the simple aim of bringing in hard currency. REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji
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A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "The U.S. is destroyer of peace!". In China, demand has really taken off. Dandong is a popular attraction for tourists who come to peep at North Koreans over the Yalu River border. Busloads of tourists show up every morning. Visitors sample a North Korean speciality of noodles in cold soup, watch North Korean women sing and dance, and buy North Korean paintings.

REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "The U.S. is destroyer of peace!". In China, demand has really taken omore

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "The U.S. is destroyer of peace!". In China, demand has really taken off. Dandong is a popular attraction for tourists who come to peep at North Koreans over the Yalu River border. Busloads of tourists show up every morning. Visitors sample a North Korean speciality of noodles in cold soup, watch North Korean women sing and dance, and buy North Korean paintings. REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji
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A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "U.S. troops out immediately!". Besides Mansudae, just about every ministry and almost all the local authorities in North Korea have an art studio, said Koen De Ceuster, a lecturer in Korean studies at Leiden University who has been studying North Korean art for over a decade. "There's studios all across the country," he said.

REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "U.S. troops out immediately!". Besides Mansudae, just about every minmore

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "U.S. troops out immediately!". Besides Mansudae, just about every ministry and almost all the local authorities in North Korea have an art studio, said Koen De Ceuster, a lecturer in Korean studies at Leiden University who has been studying North Korean art for over a decade. "There's studios all across the country," he said. REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji
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10 / 24
A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Nobody invade our blue sky!". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Nobody invade our blue sky!". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Nobody invade our blue sky!". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji
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11 / 24
A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Our guns and spears don't know mercy. The U.S. shouldn't forget the lesson of history". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Our guns and spears don't know mercy. The U.S. shouldn't forget the lmore

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Our guns and spears don't know mercy. The U.S. shouldn't forget the lesson of history". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji
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A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Unify the country after taking out the U.S.". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Unify the country after taking out the U.S.". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Unify the country after taking out the U.S.". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji
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A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "If you invade again!". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "If you invade again!". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "If you invade again!". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji
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A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Cheer for diplomacy between North Korea and Cuba!". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Cheer for diplomacy between North Korea and Cuba!". REUTERS/Kim Hong-more

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Cheer for diplomacy between North Korea and Cuba!". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji
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A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Make the Korean peninsula nuclear-weapon-free zone!". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Make the Korean peninsula nuclear-weapon-free zone!". REUTERS/Kim Honmore

A North Korean propaganda poster reads, "Make the Korean peninsula nuclear-weapon-free zone!". REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji
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Choi Sang Kyun, head of Gallery Pyongyang, arranges North Korean propaganda posters that he collected in Seoul, South Korea. REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji

Choi Sang Kyun, head of Gallery Pyongyang, arranges North Korean propaganda posters that he collected in Seoulmore

Choi Sang Kyun, head of Gallery Pyongyang, arranges North Korean propaganda posters that he collected in Seoul, South Korea. REUTERS/Kim Hong-Ji
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People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. Many Dandong galleries house North Korean painters. Staff there said they have sold North Korean paintings for as much as $100,000 to buyers around the world. Art experts agree the pieces can very occasionally fetch six-figure sums. Not all the proceeds go to Pyongyang. Mark-ups can reach four or five times the dealer's purchase price, according to one Dandong dealer.

REUTERS/Aly Song

People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, more

People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. Many Dandong galleries house North Korean painters. Staff there said they have sold North Korean paintings for as much as $100,000 to buyers around the world. Art experts agree the pieces can very occasionally fetch six-figure sums. Not all the proceeds go to Pyongyang. Mark-ups can reach four or five times the dealer's purchase price, according to one Dandong dealer. REUTERS/Aly Song
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A man takes a picture of a painting created by a North Korean artist at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. While the Security Council's Aug. 5 sanctions targeted only Mansudae, its September resolution on joint ventures also included restrictions on North Korean labour: This combination could hurt everyone in the art business, Dandong traders say.

REUTERS/Aly Song

A man takes a picture of a painting created by a North Korean artist at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre more

A man takes a picture of a painting created by a North Korean artist at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. While the Security Council's Aug. 5 sanctions targeted only Mansudae, its September resolution on joint ventures also included restrictions on North Korean labour: This combination could hurt everyone in the art business, Dandong traders say. REUTERS/Aly Song
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19 / 24
People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. But there are ways around the measures, they add. For instance, paintings from Mansudae could be sold under the name of an art studio that hasn't been sanctioned. Artists come to China under cultural exchange visas, not as workers. And two businessmen said paintings have long been accepted instead of cash in the barter deals that fuel the region's economy.

REUTERS/Sue-Lin Wong

People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, more

People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. But there are ways around the measures, they add. For instance, paintings from Mansudae could be sold under the name of an art studio that hasn't been sanctioned. Artists come to China under cultural exchange visas, not as workers. And two businessmen said paintings have long been accepted instead of cash in the barter deals that fuel the region's economy. REUTERS/Sue-Lin Wong
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20 / 24
People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. At the other end of the border from Dandong in the city of Yanji, Chinese antiques dealer Zhao Xiangchen said people usually roll up a couple of paintings and carry them quietly across the border to him. His antiques stall was thick with dust as he camped in a vacant slot next door, selling the paintings online. Since the sanctions were announced, Zhao said, Chinese customs have become more vigilant. "But I'm playing the long game," he said. "I still think there's huge latent demand for North Korean art in the Chinese market, that's only set to grow." 

REUTERS/Aly Song

People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, more

People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. At the other end of the border from Dandong in the city of Yanji, Chinese antiques dealer Zhao Xiangchen said people usually roll up a couple of paintings and carry them quietly across the border to him. His antiques stall was thick with dust as he camped in a vacant slot next door, selling the paintings online. Since the sanctions were announced, Zhao said, Chinese customs have become more vigilant. "But I'm playing the long game," he said. "I still think there's huge latent demand for North Korean art in the Chinese market, that's only set to grow." REUTERS/Aly Song
Close
21 / 24
The head of the Mansudae Art Museum, Ji Zhengtai, talks about paintings by a North Korean artist in the studio of the gallery in Beijing, China. REUTERS/Thomas Peter

The head of the Mansudae Art Museum, Ji Zhengtai, talks about paintings by a North Korean artist in the studiomore

The head of the Mansudae Art Museum, Ji Zhengtai, talks about paintings by a North Korean artist in the studio of the gallery in Beijing, China. REUTERS/Thomas Peter
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People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. REUTERS/Aly Song

People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, more

People look at paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. REUTERS/Aly Song
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People take pictures of paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. REUTERS/Aly Song

People take pictures of paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in more

People take pictures of paintings created by North Korean artists at the China-North Korea Cultural Centre in Dandong, Liaoning province, China. REUTERS/Aly Song
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