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写真 | 2018年 08月 15日 08:40 JST

The plight of Italy's African laborers

Sutay Darboe, 42, from Senegal holds tomatoes in a field of tomato plants, near Foggia, Italy August 7, 2018. Two fatal car crashes that killed 16 migrant laborers in southern Italy - so close together and with such a high death toll - have brought into focus the dire working and living conditions imposed on thousands of migrant farmhands whose cut-price labor allows Italy to be one of the biggest fruit and vegetable exporters in Europe.

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

Sutay Darboe, 42, from Senegal holds tomatoes in a field of tomato plants, near Foggia, Italy August 7, 2018. more

Sutay Darboe, 42, from Senegal holds tomatoes in a field of tomato plants, near Foggia, Italy August 7, 2018. Two fatal car crashes that killed 16 migrant laborers in southern Italy - so close together and with such a high death toll - have brought into focus the dire working and living conditions imposed on thousands of migrant farmhands whose cut-price labor allows Italy to be one of the biggest fruit and vegetable exporters in Europe. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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An African migrant laborer gets out of the shower box outside the camp known as the "Great Ghetto", near Foggia, Italy. Ludovico Vaccaro, the magistrate investigating the Aug. 6 deaths, says rampant exploitation of foreign laborers has gone largely unchecked for years. "They should rebel, but they are so poor they have to accept the unacceptable," he told Reuters. 

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

An African migrant laborer gets out of the shower box outside the camp known as the "Great Ghetto", near Foggimore

An African migrant laborer gets out of the shower box outside the camp known as the "Great Ghetto", near Foggia, Italy. Ludovico Vaccaro, the magistrate investigating the Aug. 6 deaths, says rampant exploitation of foreign laborers has gone largely unchecked for years. "They should rebel, but they are so poor they have to accept the unacceptable," he told Reuters. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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African migrant laborers stand near a road sign reading "Torretta Antonacci place" outside their camp, known as the "Great Ghetto", near Foggia, Italy. The multiple deaths have come at a time of rising anti-immigration sentiment in Italy, with the newly installed government moving to halt the arrival of migrants to the country and promising mass deportations for those already here.

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

African migrant laborers stand near a road sign reading "Torretta Antonacci place" outside their camp, known amore

African migrant laborers stand near a road sign reading "Torretta Antonacci place" outside their camp, known as the "Great Ghetto", near Foggia, Italy. The multiple deaths have come at a time of rising anti-immigration sentiment in Italy, with the newly installed government moving to halt the arrival of migrants to the country and promising mass deportations for those already here. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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Sutay Darboe, 42, from Senegal holds his notebook showing the dates and hours he has worked each day, near Foggia, Italy. Many of those toiling in the fields of Italy's Puglia region have been here for years, no closer to integrating into local society than the day they arrived by boat from Libya. "I arrived in Italy on Aug. 26, 2013. I haven't created any problem, I don't have a criminal record, I didn't come here for fun. I just want to work," said Sutay Darboe, 42, from Senegal. "Do Italians have any idea how we are treated? Do they even care?" he said, taking a precious day off work to travel round various hospital morgues looking for the body of a relative of his who died in the Aug. 6 crash.

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

Sutay Darboe, 42, from Senegal holds his notebook showing the dates and hours he has worked each day, near Fogmore

Sutay Darboe, 42, from Senegal holds his notebook showing the dates and hours he has worked each day, near Foggia, Italy. Many of those toiling in the fields of Italy's Puglia region have been here for years, no closer to integrating into local society than the day they arrived by boat from Libya. "I arrived in Italy on Aug. 26, 2013. I haven't created any problem, I don't have a criminal record, I didn't come here for fun. I just want to work," said Sutay Darboe, 42, from Senegal. "Do Italians have any idea how we are treated? Do they even care?" he said, taking a precious day off work to travel round various hospital morgues looking for the body of a relative of his who died in the Aug. 6 crash. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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African migrant laborers' shoes are seen in a shelter near Foggia, Italy. Darboe, tall and thin, wearing pink-rimmed glasses, was a distant cousin of Alasanna Darboe, a 28-year-old Gambian. They had worked together in the fields to make money to send home. "He was a good man. A pious man. He had a wife and two children. They don't know he is dead yet."

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

African migrant laborers' shoes are seen in a shelter near Foggia, Italy. Darboe, tall and thin, wearing pink-more

African migrant laborers' shoes are seen in a shelter near Foggia, Italy. Darboe, tall and thin, wearing pink-rimmed glasses, was a distant cousin of Alasanna Darboe, a 28-year-old Gambian. They had worked together in the fields to make money to send home. "He was a good man. A pious man. He had a wife and two children. They don't know he is dead yet." REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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Abandoned cars are seen at the African migrant laborers camp, known as the "Great Ghetto", near Foggia, Italy. The other dead came from Nigeria, Mali, Guinea, Ghana and Morocco. There is no suspicion of foul play in the crash, but Vaccaro believes the men were victims of the so-called "caporalato" system which exploits farm workers across Italy.

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

Abandoned cars are seen at the African migrant laborers camp, known as the "Great Ghetto", near Foggia, Italy.more

Abandoned cars are seen at the African migrant laborers camp, known as the "Great Ghetto", near Foggia, Italy. The other dead came from Nigeria, Mali, Guinea, Ghana and Morocco. There is no suspicion of foul play in the crash, but Vaccaro believes the men were victims of the so-called "caporalato" system which exploits farm workers across Italy. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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African migrant laborers gesture during a march to protest against their work conditions in Italy, following the death of 16 of their colleagues in two separate road accidents, near Foggia, Italy. Rather than employing pickers directly and putting them on regular contracts, farmers turn to caporali, or gangmasters, who gather the laborers from various camps and ghettos that dot the countryside and drive them to the fields in overcrowded vans. These middlemen hand out the wages, keeping a handsome share for themselves, migrants say. Several workers said that although they had signed contracts that promised them more than 5 euros ($5.71) an hour, in the end they got between 3.0-3.5 euros.

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

African migrant laborers gesture during a march to protest against their work conditions in Italy, following tmore

African migrant laborers gesture during a march to protest against their work conditions in Italy, following the death of 16 of their colleagues in two separate road accidents, near Foggia, Italy. Rather than employing pickers directly and putting them on regular contracts, farmers turn to caporali, or gangmasters, who gather the laborers from various camps and ghettos that dot the countryside and drive them to the fields in overcrowded vans. These middlemen hand out the wages, keeping a handsome share for themselves, migrants say. Several workers said that although they had signed contracts that promised them more than 5 euros ($5.71) an hour, in the end they got between 3.0-3.5 euros. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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African migrant laborers stage a march to protest against their work conditions in Italy near Foggia, Italy. "You can earn about 35 euros a day, but you have to pay 5 euros for the transport," said Njie, a 23-year-old Gambian who only gave his surname. "It is donkey work. White men check the plants and start yelling if just one tomato is left unpicked."

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

African migrant laborers stage a march to protest against their work conditions in Italy near Foggia, Italy. "more

African migrant laborers stage a march to protest against their work conditions in Italy near Foggia, Italy. "You can earn about 35 euros a day, but you have to pay 5 euros for the transport," said Njie, a 23-year-old Gambian who only gave his surname. "It is donkey work. White men check the plants and start yelling if just one tomato is left unpicked." REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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An African migrant laborer holds a banner reading "against all ghetto, for the dignity of work" during a march to protest against his work conditions near Foggia, Italy. Puglia labor accords stipulate that employers must pay for transport and say workers should spend a maximum 39 hours a week in the fields for a minimum salary of around 50 euros a day. Migrants say they put in much longer hours than that. They also have to bring their own food and water and are allowed only brief breaks even as temperatures soar to 40 C (104 F) on the bleak Puglia plains, which lie far from the tourist trail.

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

An African migrant laborer holds a banner reading "against all ghetto, for the dignity of work" during a marchmore

An African migrant laborer holds a banner reading "against all ghetto, for the dignity of work" during a march to protest against his work conditions near Foggia, Italy. Puglia labor accords stipulate that employers must pay for transport and say workers should spend a maximum 39 hours a week in the fields for a minimum salary of around 50 euros a day. Migrants say they put in much longer hours than that. They also have to bring their own food and water and are allowed only brief breaks even as temperatures soar to 40 C (104 F) on the bleak Puglia plains, which lie far from the tourist trail. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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An African migrant laborer uses his mobile phone at the camp known as the "Great Ghetto", near Foggia, Italy. Italy introduced a law in 2016 aimed at eliminating the caporalato phenomenon, but it has had little apparent impact. The prosecutor Ludovico Vaccaro blamed this failure on a lack of police, labor inspectors and magistrates to enforce the law, as well as limited cooperation from the victims themselves. "In order not to lose the chance of work, however bad it may be, the migrants don't talk," he said.

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

An African migrant laborer uses his mobile phone at the camp known as the "Great Ghetto", near Foggia, Italy. more

An African migrant laborer uses his mobile phone at the camp known as the "Great Ghetto", near Foggia, Italy. Italy introduced a law in 2016 aimed at eliminating the caporalato phenomenon, but it has had little apparent impact. The prosecutor Ludovico Vaccaro blamed this failure on a lack of police, labor inspectors and magistrates to enforce the law, as well as limited cooperation from the victims themselves. "In order not to lose the chance of work, however bad it may be, the migrants don't talk," he said. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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An African migrant walks near a sign reading "welcome" in different languages at the Foggia train station, Italy. Interior Minister Matteo Salvini, who is head of the far-right League, said mafia groups controlled much of the farm labor system in the region.

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

An African migrant walks near a sign reading "welcome" in different languages at the Foggia train station, Itamore

An African migrant walks near a sign reading "welcome" in different languages at the Foggia train station, Italy. Interior Minister Matteo Salvini, who is head of the far-right League, said mafia groups controlled much of the farm labor system in the region. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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Idrissa Diassy, 24, from Senegal is pictured in a field of tomato plants, near Foggia, Italy. Farmers' associations claim that many laborers are employed legally, but, in a tacit acknowledgment that pay is kept to a minimum, they also accuse major retailers of imposing low prices for their tomatoes and squashing margins. "Prices of (canned) tomatoes have remained virtually unchanged since 1985, while the cost of production has risen," said Gianni Cantele, head of the farmers' group Coldiretti in Puglia. "When you buy a bottle of tomato pulp you pay more for the bottle than you do for the contents."

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

Idrissa Diassy, 24, from Senegal is pictured in a field of tomato plants, near Foggia, Italy. Farmers' associamore

Idrissa Diassy, 24, from Senegal is pictured in a field of tomato plants, near Foggia, Italy. Farmers' associations claim that many laborers are employed legally, but, in a tacit acknowledgment that pay is kept to a minimum, they also accuse major retailers of imposing low prices for their tomatoes and squashing margins. "Prices of (canned) tomatoes have remained virtually unchanged since 1985, while the cost of production has risen," said Gianni Cantele, head of the farmers' group Coldiretti in Puglia. "When you buy a bottle of tomato pulp you pay more for the bottle than you do for the contents." REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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Tomato plants are seen in a field near Foggia. Coldiretti says 345,000 foreigners from 157 countries work in agriculture, helping to harvest every fruit and vegetable grown here, from oranges to apples, from grapes to olives. But tomato is the predominant crop and is known locally as "red gold." The World Processing Tomato Council says Italy will overtake China this year to become the world's second largest producer of processed tomatoes after the United States. The export of tomatoes generated 1.6 billion euros in 2017.

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

Tomato plants are seen in a field near Foggia. Coldiretti says 345,000 foreigners from 157 countries work in amore

Tomato plants are seen in a field near Foggia. Coldiretti says 345,000 foreigners from 157 countries work in agriculture, helping to harvest every fruit and vegetable grown here, from oranges to apples, from grapes to olives. But tomato is the predominant crop and is known locally as "red gold." The World Processing Tomato Council says Italy will overtake China this year to become the world's second largest producer of processed tomatoes after the United States. The export of tomatoes generated 1.6 billion euros in 2017. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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The business is built on the backs of men like Idrissa Diassy, a 24-year-old from Senegal (pictured in a tomato field near Foggia) who accuses the industry of taking advantage of migrants, many of whom can't go back home because of war, political persecution or lack of any papers. "They treat us like slaves. We cannot go anywhere else. We aren't allowed into other places in Europe. It is a trap."

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

The business is built on the backs of men like Idrissa Diassy, a 24-year-old from Senegal (pictured in a tomatmore

The business is built on the backs of men like Idrissa Diassy, a 24-year-old from Senegal (pictured in a tomato field near Foggia) who accuses the industry of taking advantage of migrants, many of whom can't go back home because of war, political persecution or lack of any papers. "They treat us like slaves. We cannot go anywhere else. We aren't allowed into other places in Europe. It is a trap." REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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An African migrant laborer runs near a heap of garbage outside the camp known as the "Great Ghetto" near Foggia. The camp was bulldozed by the authorities following a fire that killed three migrants. But with accommodation at a premium, the ghetto has risen again from the rubble - a shanty town of tiny shacks made of corrugated iron and wooden planks. Home to up to 1,000 people, it has zero amenities. Other migrants live in an official, albeit overcrowded and decrepit refuge, which has running water and electricity. It was set up last year after the Great Ghetto was bulldozed.

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

An African migrant laborer runs near a heap of garbage outside the camp known as the "Great Ghetto" near Foggimore

An African migrant laborer runs near a heap of garbage outside the camp known as the "Great Ghetto" near Foggia. The camp was bulldozed by the authorities following a fire that killed three migrants. But with accommodation at a premium, the ghetto has risen again from the rubble - a shanty town of tiny shacks made of corrugated iron and wooden planks. Home to up to 1,000 people, it has zero amenities. Other migrants live in an official, albeit overcrowded and decrepit refuge, which has running water and electricity. It was set up last year after the Great Ghetto was bulldozed. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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15 / 17
African migrant laborers stage a march to protest against their work conditions in Italy near Foggia. Coming down to Foggia in the wake of the road deaths, Salvini vowed to close the ghettos. "It is not possible that in a progressive society such as ours ghettos should still exist," he told reporters, without saying where the shanty-town dwellers should go instead.


REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

African migrant laborers stage a march to protest against their work conditions in Italy near Foggia. Coming dmore

African migrant laborers stage a march to protest against their work conditions in Italy near Foggia. Coming down to Foggia in the wake of the road deaths, Salvini vowed to close the ghettos. "It is not possible that in a progressive society such as ours ghettos should still exist," he told reporters, without saying where the shanty-town dwellers should go instead. REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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An African migrant laborer uses his mobile phone in a field near the camp known as the "Great Ghetto" near Foggia. African laborers themselves see little chance that their lot will improve in a country where integration has proved notoriously difficult, even for those whose asylum requests are accepted and receive work papers. Mahamadou Sima, who is from Mali and lives in the ghetto, has the right to work in Italy, but his efforts to get a regular job have failed, forcing him to stay in the fields. "If you go for a job in Italy, you don't stand a chance if you are black," said Sima, describing how he had traveled to the northern city of Bologna to apply for a position in a cleaning company. "I handed over my CV. I have all the papers you need, but the person in the firm threw my application in the bin. It broke my heart."

REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

An African migrant laborer uses his mobile phone in a field near the camp known as the "Great Ghetto" near Fogmore

An African migrant laborer uses his mobile phone in a field near the camp known as the "Great Ghetto" near Foggia. African laborers themselves see little chance that their lot will improve in a country where integration has proved notoriously difficult, even for those whose asylum requests are accepted and receive work papers. Mahamadou Sima, who is from Mali and lives in the ghetto, has the right to work in Italy, but his efforts to get a regular job have failed, forcing him to stay in the fields. "If you go for a job in Italy, you don't stand a chance if you are black," said Sima, describing how he had traveled to the northern city of Bologna to apply for a position in a cleaning company. "I handed over my CV. I have all the papers you need, but the person in the firm threw my application in the bin. It broke my heart." REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi
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